Singularity - DNS rebinding attack framework

Singularity of Origin is a tool to perform DNS rebinding attacks. It includes the necessary components to rebind the IP address of the attack server DNS name to the target machine's IP address and to serve attack payloads to exploit vulnerable software on the target machine.
It also ships with sample payloads to exploit several vulnerable software versions, from the simple capture of a home page to performing remote code execution. It aims at providing a framework to facilitate the exploitation of software vulnerable to DNS rebinding attacks and to raise awareness on how they work and how to protect from them.

How Do DNS Rebinding Attacks Work?

DNS rebinding changes the IP address of an attacker controlled machine name to the IP address of a target application, bypassing the same-origin policy and thus allowing the browser to make arbitrary requests to the target application and read their responses. The Singularity DNS server is responding with short time to live (TTL) records, minimizing the time the response is cached. When the victim browses to the Singularity manager interface, the Singularity's DNS server first responds with the IP address of Singularity itself where the client-side code (payload) is hosted. When the DNS record times out, the Singularity DNS server responds with the IP address of the target host (e.g. and the victim's browser can access the target application, circumventing the browser's same-origin policy.
It is also possible to trigger DNS rebinding before a cached DNS record expires, depending of the target platform and using a combination of techniques that are described in later sections.


  • Singularity provides a complete DNS rebinding attack delivery stack:
    • Custom DNS server to rebind DNS name and IP address mapping from the attacker web server address to the target machine address
    • HTTP server to serve HTML pages and JavaScript code to targets and to manage the attacks
    • Several sample attack payloads, ranging from grabbing the home page of a target application to performing remote code execution. These payloads can be easily adapted to perform new and custom attacks.
  • Supports concurrent users
  • Provides several DNS rebinding strategies, including sequential mapping from the attacker to the target IP address and random mapping, to minimize the impact of IDS/IPS interfering with the attack
  • A number of technical controls to maximize the reliability and speed of attacks:
    • Disabling HTTP keep alive, caching, DNS prefetching
    • Aggressive DNS response TTLs
    • Option to use DNS CNAME instead of A records to evade several DNS filtering solutions
    • Near instant rebinding for several browser and OS combinations, using multiple DNS answers and dynamic HTTP port blocking.
  • Ability to allocate HTTP servers at startup or dynamically thereafter
    • A convenience feature to avoid restarting Singularity to listen on a different HTTP port.
    • To lay the ground work to attack vulnerable ports discovered after a scan.


Singularity Manager Interface

Singularity Manager Interface

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